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In this paper, the concepts of a new bioclimatic classification of the Earth are established, its differences with other previously existing bioclimatic classifications, and the axioms and reasoning upon which it is based. The parameters, indices and bioclimatic types that are used are also indicated, and the different bioclimatic units of the classification are established (macrobioclimates, bioclimates, thermotypes, ombrotypes and bioclimates variants), together with maps of bioclimates, thermotypes, ombrotypes and the continentality of the Earth. In addition, the bioclimatic diagnoses of 588 stations are published which are representative of this classification system.